1st period – from the early days until 1929

a) 19th century publications

The oldest publication we found to date was Missa a duas vozes iguais (CMSRB-097-030), by Sigismund Neukomm (1778-1858) made in Paris circa 1836 and 1842. Apparently outside the CMSRB context, its inclusion is justified by the fact that it was composed in Rio de Janeiro on the 13th of May 1818, when the composer was visiting Brazil.

To follow-up we found a work with religious characteristics, Priere a Dieu (CMSRB-188/001), by Francisco de Sá Noronha (1820-1881), Portuguese composer, violin player and conductor, that alternated his professional career between Portugal and Brazil. This work was published as a supplement of Minerva Braziliense magazine, in March 1844, dedicated to "Son Altesse Imperiale". The text, in French, is by Emile Adèt.

Francisco Manoel da Silva (1795-1865) had his Hymno À Virgem SS (CMSRB-181/001) published in 1855 by Teotônio Borges Diniz, singer and teacher at the Imperial Chapel, who had his printing company until 1858 (Pequeno, 1977:354). We did not have access to the original publication, but to a reprint of the work made by Buschmann & Guimarães, between the years 1890 and 1897, when the company was thus named and was located at Rua dos Ourives 52 (Pequeno, 1977:358). The original plate (46 T.B.D.) was used in the reprint. The Hymno, in three stanzas, is in Portuguese, written by Antônio José de Araújo (Hazan, 1999:108), alternating a solo voice with a choir of equal voices in unison, accompanied by Harmonica [1] or Piano, as indicated in the musical score.

The collection Cantos Religiosos e Collegiaes Para uso das casas de educação (College and Religious Chants for educational establishments), by Rafael Coelho Machado (1814-1887), was published in 1857 (Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, 1857:104).

Madeira-born Rafael Coelho Machado was a composer, professor and author of theory books, having built his professional career in Rio de Janeiro from 1835.

In this collection, which contains varied types of items such as civic, moral and sociability matters, our interest was driven to the first three items, of religious characteristics: Oração Dominical (Padre Nosso) (CMSRB-127/002), Saudação Angélica (Ave Maria) (CMSRB-018/048) and Prece à Virgem Santíssima (Salve Rainha) (CMSRB-183/001), all of them of simple construction and made for unison choir accompanied by organ. About this texture, we found the following observation in the last paragraph of the publication:

As our students are not yet able to sing in choir, owing to a lack of solfeggio lessons, and the prices of music engravings being excessively expensive among us, we ceased the presentation of these chants in vocal harmony; but those who wish to purchase it in this format are allowed to have copies of the manuscript made with Mr. [Teotônio Borges] Diniz imperial copyist.

The name of the publishing house is not present in the actual publication, but the expression “Propriedade do Instituto Episcopal Religioso” (Property of the I.E.R). The Instituto Episcopal Religioso was established in 1855 and had, among its statute proposals to "build [...] an archive of religious and classical music "(Império do Brasil, 1862:222), besides the creation of a board of singers and performers who "are prepared to play religious music at catholic solemnities" and teach Gregorian chanting, vocal music and organ (Império do Brasil, 1857:466).

In the card catalogue of the National Library music department, we have found an indication of the existence of yet another publication by the same author, Cantos Religiosos para uso das casas de educação, published by Heaton & Resburg, possibly in 1857. We can only suppose it is a reprint of the same collection, but unfortunately this copy has been lost, so that we were unable to confirm it.

Tristão José Ferreira (1793-?), born in Vila Rica (Ouro Preto), Minas Gerais, composed three offices for the Holy Week, whose autographs manuscripts, from 1839, 1840 e 1841, can be found in the Arquivo Público Mineiro collection, at the Museu da Inconfidência in Ouro Preto. In the same collection we find the Good Friday Matins, published (CMSRB-016/006). Unfortunately, the absence of the cover hinder us to know details, such as date, place and company responsible for the publication.

Cernicchiaro mentions an Ofício de Semana Santa de Tristão that would have been published by the company Heuton and Rensburg (Cernicchiaro, 1926:307), which was active in Rio de Janeiro during the period between 1842 and 1856 (Pequeno, 1977:353). The printing plant of Jornal do Commercio shows news pieces in two dates (June 1854 and January 1855) about a subscription for the printing of 3 Holy Week Offices by Tristão José Ferreira.

On the other side, there is the personal account by Aloísio Viegas, researcher from São João del Rei, about "publications of works of the same Tristão José Ferreira by the Official Press from the state of Minas Gerais, in the decade of 1840".

What is the origin of the publication found in the Museu da Inconfidência: Rio de Janeiro ou Minas Gerais?

Antonio Severino da Costa, a musician virtually unknown to Brazilian historiography, had his Hymno a Nossa Senhora (CMSRB-124/001) published between 1875 e 1879, period in which the company Isidoro Bevilacqua was thus named and was located at Rua dos Ourives, 43 (Pequeno, 1977:356). The number of the plate is 2066. In reality, this Hymno is part of a collection titled Hymnario Sacro e Moral, made up of 19 diverse religious works and some of moral character, all meant for children. In the same period separate issues were made, with plates numbered from 2052 to 2069, and yet another anterior one, numbered 1952. All of them were published later in a single volume, in 1898 (plate number 4169), this time by the company E. Bevilacqua & Cia. It was studying the Catalogue of this company, released in 1900 (E. Bevilacqua, 1900:33-34), that we learned about this Collection, from which we could only locate to date the above mentioned Hymno and a Padre Nosso (CMSRB-187/001).

Antonio Severino da Costa was born in Lamego, Portugal, having moved from Lisbon to Brazil in 1829 at the age of 17. He became the organist of Irmandade do Senhor Jesus do Bonfim e Nossa Senhora do Paraíso [2]. Ayres de Andrade mentions his name as part of a "list of musicians employed to play at the Imperial Chapel in 1843, with no instrument specifications” (Andrade, 1965:II-159), and also as having taken part in a concert played on the 21th of June 1841 at Paço Imperial (Andrade, 1965:II-180).

We came across his name again as the holder of different positions in the Sociedade de Música or Sociedade Musical de Beneficência in the period from 1857 to 1865 (Santos, 1942:309-310).

Antonio Severino da Costa was a school teacher in the capital of the empire. According to the researcher Alessandra Schueler, he "held the position of school teacher since, at least, the end of the 1830s, when I found the first entry of his name among the staff of the public education system” (Schueler, 2005:346). He was also a music teacher at Escola Normal do Município da Corte, founded in 1874 [3] (Cunha, 2007).

Gennaro Arnaud, a pianist born in Naples, was active in Rio de Janeiro during the 19th century until his death in 1884 (Andrade, 1967:II-138). He had two of his works published: a Salutaris hostia (CMSRB-122/030), for three female voices and organ, by the company Viúva Canongia, between 1872 and 1877, during the period in which this company was located at Rua do Ouvidor 111 (Pequeno:1977:355); and an Ave Maria (CMSRB-018-060) in Italian for voice and piano, by the company Buschmann & Guimarãens, prior to 1890.

Domingos José Ferreira (1837-1916), a composer from Rio de Janeiro, composed an Ave Maria in Portuguese for mezzo soprano and piano in D minor in 1864 (Marcondes, 1977:242). This work was probably published in the 1870s by Narciso & Napoleão. The lower number of the plate gives us a reasonable assurance of this date. We have not succeeded in locating this publication but a reprint of it, by a later company, Sampaio Araujo & Cia, after 1913 (CMSRB-018/019).

Demétrio Rivero (?-1889), an Argentinian violin player, was a teacher at the Imperial Music Conservatory (Conservatório Imperial de Música) for 40 years, in the second decade of the 19th century, as noted in the records of Santos, (1942:312-315). We managed to locate his Ave Maria in Portuguese, composed for a pair of sopranos and a contralto, published by the company A. Napoleão & Cia (CMSRB-180/001). The name of the company and its address at that specific period indicate that this publication happened after 1893. However, the lower plate number, associated by the company to the work (1372), points to a different time frame for the original publication, before 1877, when the number of works published by the company Narciso & Napoleão would have reached 2000 (Pequeno, 1977:357).

The Cuban violinist José White (1836-1918), who lived and performed in Rio de Janeiro between 1879 and 1889, had two of his works published by the Imperial Estabelecimento Narciso & Napoleão: Adoremus in Latin, for three equal voices and organ (CMSRB-004/001), and Ave Maria, also in Latin for three equal voices and organ (CMSRB-018/003). The publication probably occurred between 1880 and 1889, when not only the firm was thus named but its address was at Rua dos Ourives 89 (Pequeno, 1977:357), but the composer is known to have lived in Brazil in this period. These works have no plate numbers.

Also in the decade of 1880, Presciliano Silva (1854-1910), born in São João del Rei, state of Minas Gerais, published in Campinas, the city he moved to in 1885 (Nogueira, 1997:400), his Missa para pequena orchestra, op.17 (CMSRB-097/013), in the same year. There is no information about the publishing company nor the number of the plate used to print it.

Flávio Elysio was the pseudonym used by Alfredo d’Escragnolle Taunay, the Viscount of Taunay (1843-1899) to sign his compositions. A prominent personality of Rio de Janeiro's music scene in the second half of the 19th century, we have three Ave Marias published in the period that concerns us. The first, op.51, has the subtitle “dedicated to Carlota Paixão” and was published by Buschmann & Guimarães (CMSRB-018/016). Its plate number, 3309, points to the mid 1880s, possibly prior to that. On the cover we have the following information "often performed at Matriz de Petrópolis during Mary's Month (May) of 1887". It is possible to imagine that this information refers to a prior publication. The work is written for two sopranos and contralto and piano.

The two other Ave Marias were located as versions published after 1913 by Sampaio Araújo & Cia, a company that succeeded A. Napoleão & Cia in that year. (Pequeno, 1977:357). In any case, the plate numbers used (3537 and 3592) point to the decade of 1880 as the original publication, possibly prior to that. Both publications were part of the Lyra Sacra collection, with 60 and 62 as opus, respectively. The op.60 was written for voice and piano (CMSRB-018/014) and the op.62 was written for mezzo-soprano and piano (CMSRB-018/009). All Ave Marias by Flávio Elysio have their text in Latin.

Antônio Ferreira do Rego is another musician virtually unknown in Brazilian music historiography. In the publication of his Ave Maria for voice and piano he is introduced as a student of the Imperial Institute for the Blind (Imperial Instituto dos Cegos), currently called Instituto Benjamin Constant, in Rio de Janeiro. Santos mentions his name as an organ and piano teacher in the same institution by 1890 (1942:317) and Cernicchiaro includes him “among the most skilled blind organists” (1926:607). The older publication we have of this work is the one made between 1893 e 1908 by Vieira Machado & Cia Editores (CMSRB-018/024), if we consider the address of the company at that stage, Rua dos Ourives 51 (Pequeno, 1977:358). Nonetheless, we believe that the original publication is older than that, not only from the very low plate number used, but also from the aforementioned introduction of Antônio as a student of the Imperial Institute for the Blind. His Ave Maria is written in Portuguese.

In 1890 Carlos Gomes had two versions of his Ave Maria published by the company Bevilacqua: one version is for Soprano or tenor (in G flat Major) and the other is for mezzo-soprano or baritone (in F major), both to be accompanied by piano. The language used in this score is Italian, but complementary parts included also brought versions in Latin and Portuguese.

Firmino Silva had his Ave Maria op. 2 published by Buschmann & Guimarãens before 1897, when the firm changed its name to Buschmann, Guimarãens & Irmão (Pequeno, 1977:358). On the cover we find a dedication to Maestro Presciliano Silva, the composer’s brother.

The company E. Bevilacqua & Cia published in1897 and 1898 two works by José Maurício Nunes Garcia (1767-1830): Missa de Requiem (CMSRB-142/007) and Missa em Si bemol (CMSRB-097/008), respectively. These publications were the result of a big campaign promoted by the aforementioned Viscount of Taunay at the end of the 19th century to salvage the memory of the mixed race Rio born composer. The plate numbers are respectively 3713 and 3883. Both editions were made under the supervision of Alberto Nepomuceno (1864-1920), and bring only versions for voices accompanied by organ or harmonium. The edition of the Requiem was studied deeper in a text we published previously (Figueiredo, 2001:22-26). Also in 1898 the vocal parts of Missa Festiva (Missa de Santa Cecília) (CMSRB-097/026) were published, by the same José Maurício. These parts were used in the performance of this work for the opening of the Candelaria church in July 1898. The publishing company is the same and the plate number used was 3983.

Marieta Neto is another practically unknown Brazilian musician. Cernicchiaro mentions her name as the "favorite singer of the aristocratic halls of her time", already performing at Club Mozart in 1882 under the name Marieta Howat (1926:535). Of her Ave Maria, in Latin, mentioned by the Italian writer, we have the oldest publication found to date, the one printed by Vieira Machado & Cia, from 1911 onward (CMSRB-018/034). But the low plate number gives us a clue that the original issue dates from the mid 1890s [4].

By Marieta Neto we also have another work published by Vieira Machado & Cia Editores, a O Salutaris written for soprano and piano. The name of the firm at that moment, its address, Rua dos Ourives 51 and the plate number used (903), points to a period between 1893 and 1901 as the probable date of its original publication.

Buschmann & Guimarães published yet another Ave Maria, by the composer Agostinho Luis de Gouveia, in Latin. That publication most probably occurred before 1897 (CMSRB-018/013), when the company changed its name to Buschmann, Guimarães & Irmão (Pequeno, 1977:358). Another important work of information is the plate number used, 2153. Pequeno states that by 1897 the number of works published by the company amounted to 3500 (1977:358). Agostinho Luis de Gouveia is mentioned by Cernicchiaro (1926:521) not just as an oboe player but also as a bassoon teacher at Rio de Janeiro’s National Music Institute (Instituto Nacional de Música). Marcondes (1977:329), who refers to him as Luís Agostinho de Gouveia, also mentions him as an oboist, bassoonist and conductor, dating his death to 1941.

Cavalier Darbilly (1846-1918), a pianist active in Rio de Janeiro in the second half of the 19th century, had one of his Ave Maria in E flat for voice and piano in Latin published by Buschmann & Guimarães, on a date prior to 1897 (CMSRB-018/006). Once again, the name of the company and the plate number used (3310) are important clues for determining the publishing date.

João Pedro Gomes Cardim (1832-1918), a composer of Portuguese origin, deceased in São Paulo, had his O Salutaris for mezzo-soprano and piano (CMSRB-122/023) published by E. Bevilacqua & Cia. The plate number suggests 1898 as the issue date.

Two nineteenth century publications were made by the initiative of José Maria Xavier (1819-1887), a Minas Gerais-born composer from São João del Rei, printed in Munich, Germany. They are Missa no.5 (1884) (CMSRB-097/005), comprehended only the Kyrie and Gloria, and the Matinas do Natal (CMSRB-034/001) (1885), with the Invitatorium and the eight Responsoria. Both works are for choir and orchestra. Unfortunately there is no information about the publishing company nor about the plate numbers used.

The company Fertin de Vasconcelos & Morand apparently played a very small role in the promotion of the Brazilian sacred and religious repertoire. Until now, we have found only two publications with their brand. One Ave Maria in Portuguese by the composer born in the state of Ceara, Alberto Nepomuceno (1864-1920), with a text by Juvenal Galeno (1836-1931), for two sopranos and two contraltos (CMSRB-018/011), and another Ave Maria in Portuguese, for two sopranos and contralto (CMSRB-018/005), composed by Frederico Nascimento, under plate number 232.

Frederico Nascimento (1852-1924), a Portuguese cello player, was a teacher of this instrument at the National Music Institute from 1891 (Santos, 1942:316). He was also a Harmony teacher at the same institution (Santos, 1942:517).

The company Fertin de Vasconcelos & Morand was short lived, existing virtually during the 1890s, having closed their activities in the beginning of the 20th century (Pequeno, 1977:358). Therefore, we are certain that both publications were made along this decade, although we are not able to precise exactly which year.

Fausto Zosne (1873-1906), pseudonym of Dr. José Ribeiro de Souza Fontes (Cernicchiaro, 1926:345), physician of the Emperor D. Pedro II (Muaze, 2006), was mainly an entertainment music composer. However, he also composed sacred and religious works. His Salve Maria for voice and piano was published as part of the E. Bevilacqua & Cia collection Musica Sacra, in 1898 (CMSRB-144/001), as we can infer from the plate number used (3940). His Salutaris hostia (CMSRB-122/031) was published by the company Manoel Antonio Guimarãens, in 1899 (date noted in the publication, 18-12-99, a rare occurrence). An advert of said company, already into the 20th century, points to the existence of a couple more works by Zosne: Padre Nosso and Tota pulchra, but they are yet to be found.

On the cover page of the publication of Hymno, by Francisco Manoel da Silva, we can find a list of other works published by the company Buschmann e Guimarães.. In that list there are two works of religious characteristics, not yet located: In dolce sonno, by Francisco de Sá Noronha (1820-1881) and Acuta lancia, by Rafael Coelho Machado, both mentioned above.

Acuta lancia is taken by Sacramento Blake as having been published in 1882[5].

Another active composer by the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, of whom we have very little information to this moment is Alfredo Ângelo, whose Ave Maria for voice and piano (CMSRB-018/059) was published by the company Buschmann & Guimarãens between 1890 and 1897.

In its vast majority, all the publications mentioned until now served as promotion for the authors in their day. The publications of José Maurício Nunes Garcia, the Requiem and Missa em Si bemol were the exceptions. The publication Hymno À Virgem SS by Francisco Manuel da Silva, at the end of the 19th century, would also represent an exception, although we have learned that the original publication occurred in the decade of 1850, when the author was fully active.

We can verify that, apart from Carlos Gomes, José Maurício, Alberto Nepomuceno and Francisco Manoel da Silva, no other composer of great repute at the time had their sacred works published during that period. Names such as Leopoldo Miguez (1850-1902), Henrique Alves de Mesquita (1830-1906) and others are absent, although we know that they composed sacred and religious works. Even prestigious names in the sacred music scene, such as Hugo Bussmeyer (1842-1912) and Archangelo Fiorito (1813-1887), masters at the Imperial Chapel seem not to be included, at least at that first stage.

Most of the published authors could be classified as amateurs, at least when compositional activity is concerned: Antonio Severino da Costa, Marieta Neto, Cavalier Darbilly and others.

We can ask ourselves why that situation persisted. One possible explanation could be that the authors themselves paid for the publication of their works. An advert at the Bevilacqua Catalogue from 1913 reads:

For many years, besides editing all Edições Bevilacqua, it was also devoted to publishing third-party works, saving time and money for its clients, avoiding to source their works to printers in Europe, whilst meeting the most severe standards. (Edições Bevilacqua, 1913:VIII).

It is followed by a price list for the services, depending on the characteristics of the publications ordered.

Printing works in Europe, especially in Germany, was quite common. We have mentioned above that José Maria Xavier printed two of his works in Munich. Pequeno provides examples of companies from the state of Para which printed their works in that country (1977:362).

It is clear in the writings of the Viscount of Taunay that the publication of Missa de Requiem by José Maurício was funded by subscriptions among his circle of friends and acquaintances.

"The final proof was the printing of Missa de Requiem which, at the end, I tore out -yes, tore out, that is the appropriate term – from the printing machine. I mean, it is not nice to be, specially in times of lack of money, asking, begging friends and acquaintances for any amount of cash to bring to light a music work from 80 years ago and to promote a requiem mass on top of that" (Visconde de Taunay, 1930:34).

Further on he continues: "Most of them, nearly all, or all them, subscribed purely to be condescending towards the one who was bothering them. [...] " (Viscount de Taunay, 1930:34).

Whereas it is true that these publications may have been were made at the expense of the composers or their admirers, the fact is that some of them were reissued many times along the 20th century, long after the authors were deceased. An emblematic example is Ave Maria by Marieta Neto.

The published repertoire is predominantly religious, but not necessarily sacred, with the exception of works by José Maurício, José Maria Xavier, Presciliano Silva and Tristão José Ferreira.

The amount of Ave Marias and O Salutaris is significant. How can we explain this phenomenon?

In the case of Ave Maria, the Marian issue was a hype in the second half of the 19th century. Firstly because of the proclamation of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pio XI in 1854, and subsequently, with the important episode of the sighting of Virgin Mary in Lourdes in 1858. We also had in Brazil, during the same period, an increased devotion to Our Lady Aparecida.

The Salutaris hostia were widely used during the Blessing of the Holy Sacrament, a hugely popular ceremony.

In their vast majority, the works published are for solo singing accompanied by piano, organ or harmonium. Even the Requiem and Missa em Si bemol, by José Maurício, originally created for orchestra, were reduced to organ or harmonium. The exceptions are the works by Tristão José Ferreira, Presciliano Silva and José Maria Xavier, made for choir, soloists and orchestra.

What was the acceptance of these publications at the time? How did it translate in sales volume?

In the introduction of Missa em Si bemol, by José Maurício, right after the Requiem, is written: "The successful initiative to publish Missa de Requiem (1816) by Padre José Maurício encouraged us to unveil to the eyes of Brazilians yet another gem among the many left in the legacy of this distinctive musician.

It seems surprising to us that the revival of José Maurício would have occurred with the publication of a Requiem. What were the criteria for such a choice? The Viscount of Taunay writes about the reactions of friends and acquaintances to whom he was asking for funding in order to publish this work: "If only it were for something to modern tastes, one would say [...] " "What? [...] a requiem! Go away, bad luck!" [and a third one who] disliked the tonality of D minor in which the music was written" (Viscount de Taunay, 1930:34).

Even more surprising is the statement that the initiative would have been "successful". How can one measure the success of a Requiem, created for such a peculiar liturgical circumstance? One can understand the success of an Ave Maria, which can be sung by any young singer in many religious and parochial circumstances, but not a Requiem, a work of such proportions and complexity.

The fact is, however, that this publication inspired yielded many performances, apparently in concerts in Uruguay, Italy and Belgium (Viscount de Taunay, 1930:38-43).

Every publication in this period that we have managed to locate contains unique works, as opposed to a volume containing several works. The exceptions were the compilations Cantos Religiosos e Collegiaes Para uso das casas de educação, by Rafael Coelho Machado and the Hymnario Sacro e Moral, by Antonio Severino da Costa.

All the publications were of practical nature. The information is restricted to the music text. The exceptions are the Requiem and Missa em Si bemol, by José Maurício, which contains introductions, mentioning even the type faces used and outlining the editorial procedures.

It is quite common to find dedications on these publications. They can be dedicated to a saint (“To Our Lady of Lourdes”, Ave Maria, by Agostinho Luiz de Gouveia), to an authority (“To Her Majesty the Empress”, Hymno À Virgem SS, by Francisco Manoel da Silva) or to a person (“To Her Highness Lady Hermínia Barrouin Goulart”, Ave Maria, by Cavalier Darbilly), probably performers or friends of the authors. Graphic aspects

The printing method print used by most of the publishing companies was certainly the lithography[6], which consists in transferring a model, produced in many different ways, to a plate of stone or zinc (in this case we call it zincography), from which the print is finally made.

Lithography was invented by the German Alois Senefelder (1771-1834), in 1796. It arrived in Brazil in 1819, brought by Arnauld Marie Julian Pallière (1784-1862), who worked for the Military Archive (Arquivo Militar), having been substituted in 1825 by the Swiss Johann Jacob Steimann (1800-1844) (Leme, 2005:507).

In the Diamond Museum (Museu do Diamante) in Diamantina, Minas Gerais, there is a rare example of metal printing plates. The work engraved is a Libera me, by the local composer João Batista de Macedo, the “Pururuca”. The print plate number, B 1072 G, points to the company Buschmann e Guimarãens, from Rio de Janeiro. This extremely low plate number sets 1880 as the probable decade of the work’s publication. We have unfortunately not managed to locate any printed copies.

One of the methods used to produce the model of a music score to be printed applying lithography or zincography used to be the Tessaro Shorthand System, a process patented by the Italian Ângelo Tessaro in 1887.

On 4th of December 1895 the Jornal do Commercio newspaper brought us an interesting description of this system and remaining stages of the printing process[7]:

The appropriate paper is adapted to a metal plate that is placed in a frame; this work has full mobility and on top of it the following machines will operate:

Lineatrice, with which we make the pentagram, the stems of quavers and semiquavers, etc.

Punzonatrice, used to make the note heads and all the music notation.

Tiralinee, to make all the figure stems, bar-lines, etc.

[...]

Once the graphic design is finished, we can perform a revision. The process allows us to correct mistakes, omissions, misplacements, etc without invalidating the work done before.

With the graphic forms completed, they are transported to the zincography workshop, where, by means of chemical reactions, the model is transferred to the zinc plates. Those will be transported to the printing workshop and then attached to the machine, where the copies are ready to be made.

The newspaper points out that this method is appropriate for female work force.

The reissued publications are formed by covers and inside pages. Usually the inside pages with the musical text are kept as in the original issue, in most cases of reissuing. The most important information for us in these inside pages is the plate numbers used, which are usually retained, even when a different company is responsible for the reissue. The front cover brings credits, the composer's name, the work's name, its purpose, the name of the publishing company, the 'logo', the name of the collection, when that is the case (Lyra Sacra, Música Sacra, etc.), dedications, etc. They are frequently decorated with colorful designs of all kinds. Wehrs lists some names of artists responsible for these covers: A. Norfini, Orestes Acquarone, Julião Machado, Belmonte, etc. (1990:87). The back covers and eventually the front covers used to bring the list of other publications printed by the company, with the name of the author, the name of the work and its price. These lists are of great value to researchers, often giving clues of published works yet to be found.


Figure 1 – Cover of Ave Maria de Abdon Milanez, published by E. Bevilacqua & C. between 1913 and 1925 (CMSRB-018/044).

Figure 1 – Cover of Ave Maria de Abdon Milanez, published by E. Bevilacqua & C. between 1913 and 1925 (CMSRB-018/044).


b) Publications of the three first decades of the 20th century

The main characteristics of these publications are essentially the same, particularly as far as the last decade of the late century.

The Ave Marias are still predominant. The majority are still for solo singing and piano or harmonium, with violin, viola and even harp eventually taking part. Below, a brief list of these published Ave Marias:

AuthorCompanyPlateYearCMRSB
Vincenzo CernichiaroManoel Antônio Gomes Guimarães5146[19-?]018/039
Dagmar Chapot-PrevostSampaio Araújo & Cia7450[after 1913]018/043
Bernhardt WagnerManoel Antônio Gomes Guimarães4810[190-?]018/047
Kinsman BenjaminVieira Machado & Cia10161902018/028
Iwan d’HunacE.Bevilacqua & Cia51691902018/022
Abdon MilanezE.Bevilacqua & Cia5847[between 1899-1910]018/046
Domingos FerreiraSampaio Araújo & Cia1828[after 1913]018/019
Júlio ReisE. Bevilacqua & C.4881[between 1901-1905]018/004
Arnaud GouvêaVieira Machado & Cia1803[between 1908-1912]018/031

The O Salutaris are also still popular:

AuthorCompanyPlateYearCMRSB
Francisco BragaE. Bevilacqua5171 [between 1907-1911] 122/007
Hugo BussmeyerManoel Antônio Gomes Guimarães4342[19-?]122/018
Vincenzo CernichiaroSampaio Araújo & Cia7753[after 1913]122/020
Dagmar Chapot-PrevostSampaio Araújo & Cia7450[after 1913] 122/019
Arnaud GouvêaVieira Machado & Cia1005 [between 1911-1925]122/002
Bernhardt WagnerManoel Antônio Gomes Guimarães4811[190-?]122/021

It is worth mentioning various reissues of Ave Marias by Marieta Neto, Antônio Ferreira do Rego and Carlos Gomes, besides O Salutaris by the same Marieta Neto and Abdon Milanez.

The collection Quatro Trechos de Música Sacra presents solely works by Bernardt Wagner. Besides the Ave Maria and the O Salutaris above mentioned, a Tantum ergo (4812) (CMSRB-161/005) and a Ingemisco (4813) were also published.

It is unfortunately not possible to date with precision the publications by the company Antônio Gomes Guimarães, established at the beginning of the 20th century, succeeding Buschmann, Guimarães e Irmão (Pequeno, 1977:357).

We found a Padre Nosso by Francisco Braga as separata of the issue number 4 of the magazine Revista Renascença (CMSRB-127/001), a short lived periodic publication (1904-1908) by E. Bevilacqua & Cia.

Apart from the already mentioned composers from the 19th century, new names come to light.

German-born Hugo Bussmeyer (1842-1912) had an important role in the religious music by the second half of the 19th century in Rio de Janeiro, being the master of the Imperial Chapel during the period between 1875 and 1889.

Francisco Braga (1868-1945) is one of the most important Brazilian composers from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. His vast work includes operas, chamber music, religious music and music for orchestra.

Vincenzo Cernicchiaro (1858-1928), Italian violin player with intense musical activity in Rio de Janeiro, having been a teacher at Benjamin Constant Institute and at the National Music Institute. His works were composed predominantly for his preferred instrument.

Arnaud Gouvêa (1865-1942), a pianist born in Minas Gerais, was a teacher at National Music Institute.

Bernhardt Wagner (1835-1920), a pianist originally from Germany, built his career in Rio de Janeiro during the second half of the 19th century, having been the founder of Club Familiar do Andaraí, in 1883 (Magaldi, 1995:13).

Born in the state of Paraiba, Abdon Milanez (1858-1927) was an engineer but had an intense career as a composer, mainly for the theater. At one point he was director of the National Music Institute, between 1916 e 1922.

Kinsman Benjamin (1853-1927), an amateur musician, founded the Club Beethoven, an important music association in the 1880s. He was also a music critic for various periodicals.

Iwan d’Hunac (1870-1953) was the pseudonym of Para-born João Itiberê da Cunha, a music critic in Rio de Janeiro at the beginning of the 20th century.

About the musician Dagmar Mattoso Chapot-Prevost – most probably an amateur – no information was found. Two of her works published at the time were credited with the pseudonym Magdar.

It is also important to mention two volumes published by E. Bevilacqua & Cia, containing various works each, a rare occurrence in this business, where individual works were the vast majority, as we pointed out above.

The first volume, titled Semana Santa (Holy Week), comprised seven compositions for unison choir and organ, by Hugo Bussmeyer.

The second volume comprised 13 Padre Nosso by Francisco Braga, with the subtitle as follows:

Sung at the S. Francisco de Paula Trezenas in 1903 by DD. Camilla da Conceição, Olivia da Cunha, Margarida P. Souza, Eulina De Milano and Mrs. Hygino de Araújo, Castro Lima, João Pinto Junior and Elysio Fernandes, conducted by Professor Humberto Milano.

These 13 Padre Nosso were written for various formations: most of them for voice and organ, but some also for male choir, 3 voices mixed choir with organ, 4 voices a capella, or for choir in unison. One of them has accompaniment by harmonium and another one has parts written for cello. They were not included in CMSRB owing to the fact that it was impossible to know for sure which ones were composed during the 19th century.

A new trend for the sacred-religious repertoire begins to surface with the publications by Escola Gratuita São José, from Petrópolis.

This school was founded on January 7th 1897, linked to the Franciscan convent in that city. Musical activities were strongly encouraged in that institution, which had among its teachers two important names for Brazil's sacred music: Pedro Sinzig, from Austria (1876-1952), and Friar Basílio Röwer (1877-1958), from Germany.

Later, in 1908, we located a catalogue with a great amount of published works composed by these two authors. It contains Masses, litanies, collections of motets and sacred chants, written for one, two, three or four equal voices, accompanied by organ, harmonium or simply a capella (Escola Gratuita São José, 1908). These works were also not included in the CMSRB as it is impossible to know for certain which of them were actually composed in the 19th century.

The repertoire developed by the institution is very different from the repertoire commonly played at the time. It is influenced by the so-called Cecilian Movement, originated in the 19th-century Europe, which advocated a return to the sobriety of Gregorian chant and to Renaissance polyphony in liturgical music, as opposed to the landslide of sacred music with an operatic approach. Among the main names of the movement we can mention the Italians Giovanni Tebaldini (1864-1952) and Lorenzo Perosi (1872-1956) and also Franz Xaver Haberl (1840-1910). One of the highlights of this process is contained in Motu proprio by Pope Pio X, which regulates sacred music to be played in churches, on November 22nd, 1903. Symptomatically, on Saint Cecila's day, that lend her name the movement.

In Brazil, and specially in Rio de Janeiro, a movement in the same direction is led by the journalist José Rodrigues Barbosa (1857-1939), with followers such as Alberto Nepomuceno, the Viscount of Taunay, Francisco Valle (1869-1906), other musicians and religious figures of the time. It was a long process, described in details by Goldberg (2006:138-149).

Despite the predominance of Brazilian publications focusing on entertainment and dancehall music, in the 19th century we can verify the gradual appearance of publications of the Brazilian sacred and religious repertoire, mainly during the last decade of the century and the first decade of the 20th century.

The characteristics of the published repertoire are diverse. The works composed for chant and piano, or harmonium, or organ are predominantly Ave Marias and O Salutaris. The majority of the publications represent the promotion of works by living authors at the time, rarely taking on a historic perspective. Most of the authors are amateurs, at least as composers, or were better known in their day for their secular output.

We were not able to locate many of the publications announced on the cover of other publications or in catalogs of the specialized companies. It is possible that the amount of published works is even vaster than announced on these sources.

The cover of the Himno, by Francisco Manoel da Silva, brings us the following highlighted note:

"In this establishment you can find a beautiful assortment of Masses, Te-Deums, Stabat-Mater, Tantum ergo, Misereres, Litanies, Salve Reginas, Hail Marys, Ave Marias, Salutaris, etc., etc.”

It seems to indicate that this company, Buschmann e Guimarães, probably had many other works for sale, which are not detailed or mentioned on the cover, like many others. But where are all those publications now?

[1] The descriptions of “Harmonica” and “Expressive organ” in Rafael Coelho Machado's dictionary (MACHADO, Raphael Coelho. Diccionario Musical – New edition – extended by the author together with Raphael Machado Filho. Rio de Janeiro: B. L. Garnier, 1909, p. 91, 152) points to the Harmonium, an instrument largely used in the period concerned, as corroborated by Friar Pedro Sinzig's dictionary (SINZIG, Frei Pedro. Pelo Mundo dos Sons – Dicionário Musical, 2nd. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Kosmos, 1959, p. 284-285).

[2] This information was personally conveyed to me by researcher Beatriz Rietmann da Costa Cunha, herself a descendent of the musician.

[3] Not to be confused with Escola Normal da Corte, founded in 1880. (Information available at ISERJ, Centro de Memória Institucional (Center for Institutional Memory / ISERJ – http://cemiiserj.blogspot.com/2008/07/estudando-escola-normal-da-corte.php. Checked on January 19th, 2009)

[4] The Vieira Machado company sometimes included the dates on its publications, as mentioned above. For example: we know that a publication (plate number 981) was dated as published in the year of 1901, which allows us to be certain that plate number 620 refers to a publication published in the 19th century.

[5] Information available on: http://www.literaturabrasileira.ufsc.br/Consulta/Catalogo.php?obra=57801&pagTemp=0. Accessed on 10/1/2009.

[6] Boorman points out the difficulties in distinguishing a print made from engraving to one made from lithography. (BOORMAN, Stanley. Printing and Publishing of Music. In Grove Music Online, available at www.oxfordmusiconline.com. Access in 18/1/2009).

[7] I owe this precious piece of information to researcher Guilherme Goldberg.

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